This person has a job that is mindless, repetitive, and monotonous. Examples of complete contem- porary applications will be referenced at the very conclusion. Suddenly, I heard him singing. 269-316). Then one day, a terrible thing happened. In the case of me being conscious of my book, my perception of the book is only limited to its front side; so that, the other sides, the back and the inside of the book are hidden viewed from an angle. The way I carry my body is unique. What can be thought of as utterances that are meaningful are statements of the world? It is an art because is proceeds with a free genius act of dealing with the original meaning of the text, recreating the textual meaning which lays bare for open interpretation. His death in the “hands of the Athenian Democracy” has paved the way for the realization of a revolutionary method of thinking that seeks to liberate the mind from the constraints of dogmatism (Ibid.) It can be considered a branch of Metaphysics and of Philosophy of Mind, although many of its proponents claim that it is related to, but distinct from, the other key disciplines in philosophy (Metaphysics, Epistemology, Logic and Ethics), and that it represents more a distinct way of looking at philosophy which has repercussions on all of these other fields. Real possession can be mine to a greater degree than the master’s if the bond of friendship between that dog and me is greater. Maybe, that was the reason why I wanted to kill him rather than let him fly away. To see is to consider an aspect of it to be true, but it remains that other aspects remain hidden too. That is, whether the wisdom they profess to possess is truly just. What this means is that in order for a conscious understanding to occur in interpretation, the interpreter must take into consideration the “alterity” of the text. One of the tasks of philosophy is to figure out what kinds of things exist out there in the world. From here, Husserl’s phenomenological investigation is born. Taking for instance our experience of what a book is in reality is primarily expressed in our being conscious of it. To be truthful in everything we do is the mark of an authentic human person. My favorite pet had flown away, leaving behind him the empty cage, which I have thought was so beautiful and was not a mere reminder of the happy days when I used to hear him sing. Primary reflection is the foundation of scientific knowledge, for science assumes a stand where the world is apart from the subject. In short, the meaning of the Being of one’s life can only be interpreted within the horizon of “historicity.”. And my canary’s singing. Yet to simply conceptualize Being is to “enframe” it into the structure of particular things which are its sheer representations, that is to reduce one’s encounter with reality into mere ideas. Such is made manifest in the experience of what Heidegger (2008) calls “aletheia” or the revelation of the meaning of Being to the human person. My body would be the body examined by a physician, or perhaps the body that I sell in prostitution house. A creature, as long as it gives me pleasure whenever I see or hear it, belongs to me. We shall not start too with definitions of man, definitions that may cut man into parts. This is magnified with the persistent claim of his ignorance, that he is sure that he knows nothing. That time I felt a longing inside me, a longing to have him back. Judgments such as, “I hear the sound of birds singing on top of the tree”; “I see a beautiful woman walking towards my way”; I know that today is Sunday”; and “I am drinking coffee from my mug while seated on my old wooden chair.” are some examples of linguistic utterances whose objects we are conscious of. Example of a … Propositions such as, “The rose is beautiful”, “The dog is barking”, “The car is broken” are some examples of elementary propositions. Primary reflection breaks the unity of experience. "As they further note, he blurred the "distinctions between rational and irrational, subject and object." And since the world is all that can be talked about, propositions that are outside of it are necessarily non-sense. Furthermore, the hermeneutic method is characterized with the determination of language as the medium for the revealing of truth. It is under such presupposition that one will truly seek to acquire true wisdom. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY REFLECTIONS (Gabriel Marcel) ... As usual, I shall start with the simplest examples I can find, to show how reflection has its roots in the daily flow of life. Being already in the world that tends to mold us, our project therefore is to liberate ourselves from the “enframing” structure of our “everydayness”. As discussed above the Socratic Method is characterized with a method of dialectical questioning that serves as a guide for students to arrive at the right procedure of knowing the truth. While, the phenomenological method helps recover the primordial meaningfulness of life, that is, the eidetic aspects of our everyday lived-experiences, which is actualized by suspending our natural ways of dealing with the world. From primary reflection, I can answer the question by mentioning my name, date of birth, place of birth, height, weight – the items I would normally fill out in a registration card. If we stay in love, it will decide everything. Before, I would be tempted to pick that flower and bring it home with me. The attraction of the phenomenological method was, for Husserl (1970), in its promise as a new science of being. It has been said that in order for language to make sense, it must picture reality. In secondary reflection, I would have to penetrate into the inner core of my person. For the human person is not just in the world, she is also engaged with it and is determined by the world. Thus, in order to better comprehend the meaning of one’s life one must not simply discard the importance of one’s embodiment. Secondary reflection tells me that my body is mine. Socrates, being an exceptional teacher, was accused of corrupting the youth, treason and, and atheism. The human person then, which Heidegger calls “Dasein” sees life as a text to be analyze, hence to interpret. The central project of the study of phenomenology is the rigorous determination of the nature of our conscious experiences. Once we have studied some examples , we can imaginatively vary the experiences in our minds , to achieve a full range of all the possible experiences of the type under consideration. It is an analysis on the proper determination of the meaning of our linguistic expressions, their truthfulness and falsity and how they relate to us a world that is real. Husserl explicates that Descartes has failed to ground knowledge on a firm footing. Hence, the understanding of the Being of one’s life remains a private task. Socrates in wanting to understand what the oracle of the god of Delphi set forth by questioning people who were referred to as wisest, for he knows in himself that he is not wise (Plato, 2000, p. 21b). Thus, he writes “[perception is that] primal experience from which all other experiencing acts derive a major part of their grounding force” (Idea, p. 82). They relate to us what is the world being a picture of reality. I too some extent am both aware of the objects of my consciousness and of my being conscious of this experience. Phenomenology, in general, is identified with the rigorous study of our conscious experience. Rather understanding is identified with one’s openness to her very world. “Epoche or [bracketing] refers to the phenomenological reduction of our experience” (Ibid.). The existentialist philosopher Gabriel Marcel uses a phenomenological method less technical than Husserl’s. Our articulation of how things really mean to us is blurred most of the time by the pre-existing ideas we inherited from people around us by way of linguistic exchange. The history of philosophy is marked by the struggle for the search of the right method. Different types of studies go under the umbrella of qualitative research; each with its own philosophy and ways of looking at the world as well as various methods of interpreting data. This is made possible by the recognition that texts do have their own proper temporal context. Only then I say that I am the richest man on earth. Despite our limited and often disputed knowledge of him through the secondary sources from Aristophanes, Xenophon, and Plato, Socrates’s inscrutable character and the subtlety of his teaching has “changed how philosophy itself was to be conceived” (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). Gabriel Marcel - Gabriel Marcel - Religious belief: Marcel’s thought has a clear religious dimension, and he recognized early on that it was leading him in a religious direction even though he then had no strong religious beliefs and no formal religious upbringing. The book that you are reading is perceived under specific spatio-temporal conditions, what you see is only this page as you are reading but not the entire book. Accordingly. I kept on telling myself that it was unjust, after all the trouble I went through taking care of the bird. It has been said that Heidegger’s main problematic in Being and Time is the recovery of the meaning of Being. Socrates insists on the recognition of once ignorance and to know oneself in order for her to be truly wise. I saw him perched on the fence, his wings not used to flying over long distances. Propositions are statements of facts. The truth-value of such complex propositions is identified by the truth-value of its constitutive propositions. 73-74). And yet it is in language that the real meaning of Being reveals back to us. But is this my sole experience of my body? Edmund Husserl begins his project of phenomenology by inquiring how our linguistic utterances and judgments – though are purely mental in structures – direct us to objects existent in the world. Phenomenological method does not begin with pre-existing theories, nor does it test hypotheses, and it does not explain human experience with reference to neurological or environmental causes. Only within the horizon of time can a human individual understand the meaning of the things and people who surround her. The book in the process of the eidetic reduction is reduced into the state of a pure mental phenomenon. Aletheia happens as a form of liberation and aid from our state of facticity. I discover that my watch is not there; but it ought to be there; normally my watch is in my pocket. What is needed in secondary reflection is an ingathering, a recollection, a pulling together of the scattered fragments of our experience. The I that thinks of the world, in general, is the substance of every phenomenological engagement. Socrates was aware of this paradox with his insistence of having to know nothing despite of the gods calling him the wisest. Secondary Reflection. In his book Being and Time, he uses many examples of how people live in their normal lives. In the Socratic method, the instructor ceases to be the absolute fount of truth for he becomes simply part of the entire didactic dialogue of free individuals thinking for their own. The statement, “The red roses are in the garden.” is an example of a compound logical statement. For Wittgenstein (1974), the meaningfulness of propositions rests in their picturing realities, that is, their being a picture of the state of affairs. I was angry at everything. Socrates realized this with his incessant questioning that is intended not to posit new truths but simply to ask whether the wisdom of the people is truly the wisdom of the philosopher. Examples of research questions for different qualitative methodologies . What this means is that phenomenology is ultimately directed upon bringing into light the primordial meaningfulness of our everyday-lived experiences. Primary reflection would look a t my body as a body like other bodies, detached from the self that would make it unique. For him, wisdom primarily springs from realizing that “this man among you, mortals, is wisest who…understands that his wisdom is worthless” (Plato, 2000, p. 23b). The former expresses the Hiedegger’s notion of “Sein” –Being– which is the grounding principle of everything. In her being constantly stretched between being true and being untrue, the human person fulfills her task of uncovering the lost meaning of Being. Phenomenology in its origin takes the form of a critique against the claims of the Cartesian Methodic Doubt. Phenomenological Method . What Socrates is trying to say is that knowing oneself is the first step to knowing the truth. This determination of the truth-value of the compound by its element facts is what is referred to as the truth function of logical statements. Time then constitutes an important dimension of the human person because only along time can she understand the meaning of her life. What this means is that perception –of any object – is the beginning of all of our experiences of the world. It is only distantly … It makes little sense, for example, as Harre´ (2004) has recently suggested within these pages, to The point is both instances of the same compound statement are truth functions of the original statement (Sharma, 2007, p. 71). My perception of what I assert to be a book of the “Idea” is different from my perception of the façade of the book. Being human, one is always in the danger of “falling.” To succumb to errors for our comportment to the world presupposes that we err. Propositions such as “The car is red”, “The flowers in the garden are beautiful”, “The house across the street is old and dilapidated” are some linguistic expressions that find their sense in their picturing the facts of the world. It is only given “from the front”, only “perspectivally foreshortened and projected,” etc … [T]he elements of the invisible rear side, the interior, and so on, … are not themselves part of the intuitive … content of the percept (Ibid., p. 118). As Wittgenstein (1974) emphatically asserts, the limits of our language are the limits of our world. This is so because he conceives “perception as the paradigmatic kind of experience” (Solomon, 200, p. I was surprised to hear it because canary birds are seldom seen here, and when you hear one singing, you cannot just mistake it for some other bird’s son. Categorical Logic: Terms and Propositions, Categorical Statements in Traditional Logic, Quantifying Statements in Categorical Logic, Disjunctive Syllogism: Rules of Inference, Qualitative Research Techniques: Delphi Technique, Research Designs, Methods, and Techniques, Syllabus: Comparative Philosophy of Education, Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy, Hegelian Dialectic: Meaning and Key Concepts, Emile Durkheim’s Sociological Theory: Key Concepts, Max Weber’s Sociological Theory: Key Concepts. The world of objects is the only realm where language finds its meaning. In this article I propose a method of interviewing for descriptive phenomenological research that offers an explicit, theoretically based approach for researchers. Lastly, the analytic Method is identified with the determination of language as expressing the state of affairs of the world. It has been argued that it differs from other branches of philosophy in that it tends to be more descriptive than prescriptive. It deals primarily with the determination of the nature and structure of human conscious experience, which may come in the following guises, namely, the experiences of perceiving, listening, looking, remembering, feeling, acting, and so on. They are that which constitute reality. Moreover, the necessity of knowing oneself is insisted by Socrates for the reason that “the unexamined life is not worth living for man” (Plato, 2000, p. 37e). “Phenomenological reduction as an eidetic project attempts to lay bare the essential and general features of that world as a set of essential meanings” (David, 4). Phenomenological Method One of the types of qualitative research methods, the phenomenological approach aims to explore the experiences of a particular phenomena in a community or a group of people. But as Socrates recounted, all those men in politics, art, and literature, who were considered to be wisest and masters of their crafts, were found empty of anything about truth. From the ancient period down to the present, philosophers have engaged into an open ended-debate arguing about the possibility of a unified philosophical method. 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